[38] Glenn, 169, citing March 1944 issue of the The Postal Alliance.

[39] See The Negro in Chicago: A Study of Race Relations and a Race Riot, by the Chicago Commission on Race Relations (Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press, 1922), pages 79-105, for a discussion of some of the causes of migration.

[40] Between 1910 and 1920, the black population as a percentage of the total increased as follows: in New York City, from 2 to 2.9 percent; in Chicago, from 2.1 to 4.2 percent; in Philadelphia, from 5.5 to 7.4 percent; and in Detroit, from 1.3 to 4.2 percent. Foreign-born white immigrants poured into northern cities at a far greater rate than native-born blacks, outnumbering them by a factor of about 3 (in Philadelphia) to 12 (in New York) in 1920, and about 2 (in Philadelphia) to 7 (in New York) in 1930. Figures extrapolated from Statistical Abstract of the United States, 1914, 54-55; 1925, 43-45; and 1935, 21-25, at http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/past_years.html [accessed September 15, 2010].

[41] Figures reported in the Philadelphia Tribune, June 21, 1928, and the Afro-American, September 29, 1928. In 1930, African Americans represented 11 percent of the population of Philadelphia, and 18 percent of the population of Baltimore.

[42] Statistics reported in The Washington Post on November 15, 1925, and July 16, 1931. In 1930 blacks represented about 27 percent of the population of Washington, D.C.

[43] Edward LaSalle, an official of the National Alliance of Postal Employees, quoted in Glenn, 98, citing January 1936 issue of The Postal Alliance. In February 1948 the same phenomenon was reported: ”recognition of the civil rights for Negro postal workers is directly proportional to those accorded Negro citizens in communities in which they reside and are employed” (Glenn, 312).

[44] Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Executive Order 8802,” June 25, 1941. From University of California, American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/print.php?pid=16134 (accessed January 8, 2010).

[45] Franklin D. Roosevelt, “Executive Order 9346,” May 27, 1943. From University of California, American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/print.php?pid=16404 (accessed December 29, 2010).

[46] See “To Secure These Rights” at http://www.trumanlibrary.org/civilrights/srights1.htm (accessed December 29, 2010).

[47] Harry S. Truman, “Executive Order 9980,” July 26, 1948. From University of California, American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/print.php?pid=78208 (accessed August 5, 2010).

[48] Glenn cites several examples of the Board finding discrimination in Post Offices, where the Postmaster General had not (Glenn, 291).

[49] In 1943 Postmaster General Frank C. Walker issued an order banning segregation in cafeterias in government-owned buildings. Despite the order, segregation continued as late as 1953 in some cafeterias due to social pressures – including, reportedly, at Post Office Department headquarters.

[50] Glenn, 170.

[51] The Postal Bulletin, June 2, 1943, 1.

[52] The Los Angeles Sentinel, September 11, 1947, 3.

[53] See Senate Report 1777, Part 2, 80th Congress, 2d Session (1948), and also Glenn, 180-181, 183-184, 222-229.

[54] Glenn, 244.

[55] Elizabeth McDougald, “Negro Youth Plans Its Future,” The Journal of Negro Education, April 1941, 224-225.


The last many years of the twentieth century saw more African-American postal “firsts.” In January 1981 Mary A. Dark colored was delegated as the primary dark lady MSC Manager/Postmaster – at Shreveport, Louisiana.[92] Mary J. Layton turned into the primary dark lady Assistant Postmaster General when she was selected Assistant Postmaster General of the Public and Employee Communications Department in 1982.

The principal African-American worker to achieve the situation of Regional Postmaster General was Emmett E. Cooper Jr., who was named the Eastern Regional Postmaster General in 1977. Johnnie F. Thomas was delegated Eastern Regional Postmaster General in March 1986, and in March 1989 Samuel Green Jr. turned into the third African-American to hold the situation of Eastern Regional Postmaster General.

In 1992 the title “VP” supplanted “Right hand Postmaster General.” In the 1990s the accompanying African Americans filled in as Vice Presidents of the United States Postal Service (recorded with their latest title):

Sylvester Black Vice President, Western Area Operations

Samuel Green Jr. Senior Vice President, Customer Sales and Services

Robert F. Harris Vice President, Diversity Development

Clarence E. Lewis Jr. Head Operating Officer and Executive Vice President

Henry A. Pankey Vice President, Mid-Atlantic Area Operations

Clarence E. Lewis Jr. was named Chief Operating Officer and Executive Vice President in June 2, 1998 – the most astounding positioning African-American postal worker to that date. Lewis begun his postal profession as a substitute city letter transporter in Norfolk, Virginia, in 1966. He progressed through supervisory and administration positions in Norfolk and in 1986 turned into an official in the Richmond Division. He got a few advancements previously his arrangement as Vice President, Area Operations, Allegheny Area, in 1996, and as Chief Operating Officer and Executive Vice President in 1998. In March 2000 Postmaster General Bill Henderson gave Lewis the Benjamin Franklin Award, the Postal Service’s most noteworthy respect.

Expanding upon its governmental policy regarding minorities in society and EEO programs, in 1992 the Postal Service made a Diversity Development office to “fill in as the Postal Service’s social conscience.”[93] The objectives of the office were to “increment workers’ familiarity with and gratefulness for ethnic and social assorted variety” and to:

guarantee that all vocation and progression arranging takes headway for ladies and minorities into thought, and that the social cosmetics of neighborhood networks is spoken to in the postal work force.[94]